The story of the 50 regional jets produced by the Canadians and Embraer, to a lesser extent by the Fokker F.28 scholarship and British Aerospace BAe-146, is in many ways the story of Long Island MacArthur Airport , Because this type ultimately simplifies the hub carrier’s feed service for the main carrier. It represents a larger airline’s route to smaller and secondary airports, and has the same speed, flight time and comfort compared to traditional large trunk jets, making up for them with 19 to 50 seat turboprop aircraft The gap between the latter is too small and too slow for many of these departments.
To a large extent, the deregulation of airlines has led to the rise of the US spoked route system. Transport routes from long, but small regional aircraft to large-capacity passenger aircraft, such as American Airlines, Continental Airlines, Delta Air Lines and United Airlines, and send them to large-capacity passenger aircraft. Commuters quickly expanded themselves, mainly due to this new jet. It was the right aircraft at the right time and led to the so-called “regional jet revolution”.
Bombardier Aerospace (later acquired Air Canada) said: “Regional aircraft is not only the most cost-effective way for airlines to connect hundreds of communities (if not thousands) to airport hubs and global airline networks,” passengers Travel experience, and provide more airlines with more passenger traffic, revenue and greater market share. In order to further increase traffic, people have proposed the idea of using Air Canada regional jets to fly between “radiant” cities. Each new city with a voice has increased the number of transit passengers flying to regional airlines’ mainline partner hubs. These additional routes provide passengers in small communities with more flight options. “
This must have happened at Islip’s Long Island MacArthur Airport.
Doug Blissit, Delta’s former vice president of Delta Air Lines, said: “There are actually hundreds of markets that do not support conventional jet services, but now there are 30, 50 and 70-seater aircraft can provide jet comfort and economic services.” Network analysis. “Regional aircraft is a huge economic transformation in the aviation industry. The vast majority of deployments are to expand the coverage of the hub by using more economical aircraft.”
In addition to the nature of this type of cooperation, it also has a competitive advantage. It can be considered as a tool for attacking the radial fortress of major airlines, allowing smaller aircraft carriers to start from traditional turboprop commuters and penetrate the main personnel’s armor cracks, thus forming point-to-point route feeds that do not require a hub To obtain a sufficient load factor.
Early regional jet operations:
The Fokker F.28 scholarship may be the earliest regional aircraft in the Western world. It canceled Russia’s three-engine, 27-passenger Yakovlev Yak-40 from the discussion.
Its high-wing, twin-turboprop aircraft, the popularity of the F.27 friendship that can accommodate 40 people, just like the compass pointing in the direction of a pure jet supply machine, can provide higher speeds, thereby reducing the jamming time, thus Has led to rapid development. F.28 itself.
The aircraft was released in April 1962 and was originally intended for short-range operations, but it can provide 65 higher seats, and its body width is sufficient to meet the needs of five people side by side. The appearance is similar to the mainline aircraft such as British Airways BAC-111 and McDonald-Douglas DC-9. Its leading edge is a low-profile, swept-back wing, and two Rolls-Royce RB.183 Spey at the rear Primary turbofans, dorsal fins, and T-tails, but maintain simplicity by eliminating any leading edge equipment. Its unique design is the hydraulically driven petal-type air brake, which forms the rear end of the fuselage. It can be extended to different degrees, it contributes to a steep but slow and controllable descent profile.
In addition to the financial support provided by the Dutch government, the plan’s risk sharing comes from the Short brothers of Belfast, Northern Ireland. HFB and VFW in Germany; and AiResearch, Dowty Rotol and Goodyear.
The three prototypes made their first flight from October 20 to May 9, 1967, and August 3, and the first production F.28-1000 was delivered to customers in Germany on February 24, two years later. LTU. Like F.27, because F.28 is usually the largest model in the small airline fleet, sales can be calculated in single digits.
The stretched version of F.28-4000 has a total length of 97.2 feet and a wing span of 82.3 feet, an increase of almost 12 feet. It is powered by two 9,850 pound thrust Rolls-Royce Spey 555-15H turbofans with a maximum take-off weight of 73,000 pounds, a cruising speed of 2530 feet at 530 mph, and a maximum payload to fuel ratio range of 1,162 to 2,560 mile. Although it can accommodate 79 five-person single-cabin passengers, it can take another six people at a 29-inch seat pitch for a total of 85 people and install an additional wing exit on each side.
Type is the factor of Piedmont’s Islip operation.
Piedmont (Piedmont) itself opened the air route of flight 41 as early as February 20, 1948. Departing from Wilmington, North Carolina (0700), its DC-3 took a multi-hop journey to Pinehurst, Charlotte, Asheville, Lexington and Cincinnati. Two other aircraft of this type and 250 employees make up its metal and personnel backbone.
As the business continued to expand, especially the expansion of the route to Atlanta, it initially served Delta and Eastern Airlines flights and grew significantly until it became a major American airline. In 1966, its literal meaning and the image of a large airline arrived in New York, perhaps a symbol of its prestige.
Very profitable: $1 million in 1965, almost doubled in two years. It established its first hub in Charlotte, North Carolina, and radiated its influence to major cities such as Boston, Pittsburgh, Tampa, Miami, and Dallas/ft. Denver’s market value exceeds that of Eastern Airlines’ traditional Charlotte Fortress.
Advertised in the system schedule on October 31, 1982, using 727-100, 727-200 and 737-200s (the latter is the main aircraft in the short and medium distance), “We make travel to more than 80 cities Made easy”.
Subsequently, hubs were established in Baltimore and Dayton, and the wide-body 767-200ER eventually reached the West Coast and Europe.
By 1987, Piedmont operated a fleet of 177 people and traveled to about 235 destinations with a passenger capacity of 23 million passengers, making it a mature time for USAir to acquire it for $1.6 billion.
The capacity of Long Island MacArthur Airport, especially the F.28-1000 of 65 passengers, ensures the frequency of flights.
Of the five daily flights it dispatched to the Baltimore hub, morning and evening flights were carried out by 128-passenger 737-300 aircraft; in the morning and at noon, they took 37 seats of Piedmont Regional Airlines DHC-8-100 passenger aircraft Henson. F.28-1000 performed noon work, enabling it to “adjust the size” according to the time of day, capacity and demand.
In 1986, Piedmont (Pedmont) was deployed from Islip when it acquired the New York State-based and concentrated Empire Airlines, as well as its Syracuse hub and 85 passenger F.28-4000 aircraft. This model provides services for its rapidly developing Charlotte hub.
Another early regional aircraft was BAe-146 of British Aerospace Corporation.
The final design meets the demand for regional aircraft or regional aircraft, and has undergone several iterations, including the high-wing twin turboprop DH.123 aircraft proposed by De Havilland and the low-wing aircraft equipped with rear engines until it Together with Avco Lycoming ALF-502 high bypass ratio turbofan, it reached HS.146 of Hawker Siddeley. Because they do not generate the thrust required by the envisioned aircraft, only the four pylons installed under the high wing can ensure the required performance and range.
Although this type of official launch in 1973 looked promising, the subsequent world recession, rising oil prices and rising development costs made it untimely, leading to its termination in October 1974. However, low-key development continues.
After de Havilland and Hawker Siddeley merged into the state-owned British Aerospace Corporation and conducted their own design and market review, they obtained the government’s comprehensive plan development on July 10, 1978.
The final assembly took place in Hatfield.
Sports, such as the F.28 scholarship, a T tail and a rear petal, are used for the air brake formed by the steep approach fuselage. Its deflection is that its wing is tall and there is no leading edge device. There are also four turbofans. Although its cabin is spacious enough to accommodate six side-by-side seats, most aircraft carriers choose five.
The first flight of BAe-146-100 from Hatfield took place on September 3, 1981. This is followed by two stretched versions with larger capacities, namely BAe-146-200 and -300.
The former debuted on August 1, 1982, with a length of 93.10 feet, a span of 86 feet, a sweep angle of 15 degrees, and a Fowler flap on the trailing edge. Six people sit side by side, and the 29-inch pitch can accommodate up to 112 passengers on the floor. It has a maximum gross weight of 93,000 pounds and a payload of 1,130 nautical miles.
BAe-146 was put into operation at Wisconsin Airlines on June 27, 1983.
Presidential Airways was founded by Harold J. Pareti in 1985 and is headquartered in Washington. It is the sole operator of such aircraft as Islip. In addition to its 737-200 aircraft, it also has eight BAe-146-200 aircraft. It connected Long Island to its Dulles International Hub and later became a code-sharing carrier for Continental Airlines and United Express, providing flight services for its main flights in Washington.
Future regional jet operations:
The first next-generation regional jet was the “Air Canada” (later Bombardier) CRJ.
In addition to developing a completely new design, potential low-volume pure jet aircraft manufacturers have two options: to reduce the existing mainline aircraft (such as DC-9-10), which will add too much structural weight to the market or press Zoom in on the plane. The latter category is business jets, although their narrow body makes them unsuitable for such commercial applications. Due to the spacious cabin of the CL-600 Challenger, which first flew in 1978, Canadair was able to choose the latter.
It was originally envisaged to merge it into a simple passenger plane capable of accommodating 24 quadruple passengers and named CL-600E. It was first released in 1980, but the plan to continue this version was canceled the following year. In 1987, one year after Bombardier acquired Canadair, it reconsidered the concept of a small regional jet, and launched it in 1989.
It is more ambitious than originally thought, it uses a 19.5 foot extension, through the front and rear fuselage plugs, additional wing emergency exits, enhanced wings and increased fuel capacity, and two rear-mounted GE CF34 turbo fan is realized. Dressed up as it first appeared on the prototype on May 10, 1991. After flight test procedures for three aircraft, it received FAA certification on October 29 of the following year and was put into use by launch customer Lufthansa CityLine. Provides point-to-point and hub services from Düsseldorf, Frankfurt, Hamburg and Munich to destinations in Western Europe.
The original CRJ-100 version exudes a pilot’s so-called “sexy appearance”, with a pointed nose, a length of 87.10 feet, a wingspan of 69.7 feet, an area of 520.4 square feet, only trailing edge flaps, and two CF220s of 9,220 pounds -3A1 thrust reverser and turbo fan, and a T-shaped tail. Fifty-four passengers can be accommodated in ultra-thin seats in the cabin with enclosed overhead storage boxes, kitchen and toilet.
The payload is 13,500 pounds, the total weight is 53,000 pounds, and the range is 1,650 nautical miles.
The follow-up CRJ-200 driven by CF34-3B1s provides greater range, lower fuel consumption and higher cruising speed and altitude.
The total sales for both types is 1,054.
Comair is headquartered at Cincinnati-Northern Kentucky International Airport and is the first modern regional aircraft operator of Long Island MacArthur.
Airline services began in 1977, initially landing in Akron/Canton, Cleveland and Evansville, equipped with eight-seater piston-driven Piper Navajos, followed by 18-seater turboprop aircraft Embraer EMB- 110 Bandeirantes.
After its establishment at the Cincinnati hub in 1984, it was accepted as a Delta Connection carrier and operated in its coating, and expanded significantly, and soon acquired Fairchild Swearingen Metro, Shorts 330, Embraer, EMB-120 Brasilia And Saab 340 equipment. Orlando became the second hub.
As the first customer of the Air Canada regional aircraft, by 2005, the company had operated 163 such aircraft, including 63 CRJ-100ER, 37 CRJ-100LR, 37 CRJ-200ER and 27 CRJ-700LR .
Delta Airlines acquired a 20% stake in Comair in 1996, and the remaining shares three years later.
This type of aircraft played an important role in the inauguration of Islip, three flights a day, every morning, afternoon and evening to and from Cincinnati (Cincinnati), so that passengers can take their own and partner Delta flights. This link opens up connections to Long Island in other parts of Canada and parts of Canada.
Another Canadian regional aircraft operator of MacArthur (also Delta Airlines) is ASA Atlantic Southeast Airlines.
On June 27, 1979, the Canadian De Havilland (De Havilland) DHC-6 Twin Other aircraft began an independent scheduled service from Atlanta to Columbus, Georgia, and purchased pure jets BAe-146-200 and CRJ- The Type 200 provided impetus to the airline hub after signing its own two-letter marketing agreement with Delta’s Atlanta hub. As happened with Comair, the ASA was attracted by increasing stock purchases until Delta Air Lines fully owns it.
Cincinnati (Cincinnati) arrived in 2002 and is its 100th destination. In 2003, it received the 100th regional aircraft. By 2011, the company had operated 112 CRJ-200ERs, 46 CRJ-700ERs and 10 CRJ-900ERs.
As of August 1, 1999, Islip has been connected to its own flight and Delta’s extensive Atlanta hub through the ASA’s three daily CRJ-200 round-trip flights. Later, Comair also provided services for this route.
Another Canadian regional jet operator flying to Islip is Wisconsin Airlines, which is branded US Airways Express, and has restored contact losses due to flight restrictions on Washington Reagan national flights. The incoming aircraft was awarded a water curtain on MacArthur’s ramp when it reached 1250 on March 25, 2012.
It restarted in 1328 and became the first of two daily CRJ-200 round trips. Although it is highly recognized by lawmakers, it is short-lived.
The opponent (if not the competitor) of the Air Canada regional jet is Embraer ERJ-145.
Leveraging an unprecedented engine enables it to operate in major untapped markets, using its powerful power, it tries to compensate for the higher fuel consumption of traditional turboprop aircraft by increasing its daily utilization rate, which is the traditional turboprop The fuel consumption of the engine is shorter. More and more passengers accept.
Unlike Canadair’s CL-600 Challenger business jet, it uses EMB-120 Brasilia as its inspirational base, introducing two fuselage plugs and redesigned wings with an extended leading edge chord, slightly The swept angle and winglet, but with pure jets in pods. The T-shaped tail is retained. It was originally called EMB-145 Amazon.
In early 1990, the Allison GMA-3007 turbofan generated 7,100 pounds of thrust, with a maximum thrust of 10,000.
The iteration resulted in a reduction in length, an increase in span, an increase in fuel capacity, an increase in weight, and an increase in performance, which ultimately led to the final flight of the final ERJ-145 on August 1, 1995. It can accommodate up to 50 passengers in the cabin, with three passengers side by side. It has a payload of 12,755 pounds and a total weight of 48,501 pounds in the aisle at the front of the cabin. It was first delivered to the launch customer ExpressJet Airlines in the second year and provided as Continental Express. Its capacity, speed and voyage can meet the demand for longer and thinner routes to meet its own and the United States. Continental Airlines needs.
United Airlines’ Corporate News on March 29, 2004, said: “With its hub at Cleveland Hopkins International Airport, Continental Airlines is the largest airline in northeastern Ohio, flying more than 250 flights daily 80 cities.” “Continental Airlines and Continental Airlines have one of the youngest aircraft fleets in the United States, providing services from Cleveland Hopkins to major business centers, including Boston, New York (Newark Liberty, Lagua Dia, Kennedy, White Plains), convenient, high frequency service, and Islip), Washington (Reagan National, Baltimore-Washington and Dulles), Chicago (O’Hare and Midway), Houston and Atlanta.
Like other regional airlines, ExpressJet itself is the result of a merger of several turboprop commuter airlines, including Bar Harbor Airlines in Bangor, Maine; PBA Provincetown-Boston Airlines in Hyannis, Massachusetts; Colorado Rocky Mountain Airlines in Denver; and Brit Airways in Terre Haute, Indiana, both fly with the latter’s operating certificate.
It launched the ERJ-145 regional jet service on September 4, 1998, and eventually became the largest operator of the three aircraft types, including the smaller 37-seat ERJ-135 and 44-seat aircraft. ERJ-140.
Its three Islip-Cleveland frequencies each morning, afternoon, and evening carry a “CO” flight number, linking Long Island to the rest of the United States.
Another regional aircraft carrier of MacArthur Embraer is the American Eagle.
Like Continental Airlines, the American Eagle concept came out at the end of 1984 because American Airlines could not economically serve the secondary and tertiary markets with its mainline aircraft. It developed rapidly, providing power for the hub, and developed from turboprop engines to pure jet aircraft equipment. From November 1st, the first officially designated American Eagle Airlines flew from Fayetteville, Arkansas to Dallas. At that time, one of its Metroflight’s 14 Convair 580 aircraft was composed of two 3,750 hphp Allison 501-D13H turbines. The propeller plane provided power and landed at the southwestern hub of the United States. The aircraft converted from the piston-propelled CV-240, -340 and -440 were eventually replaced by the Saab 340.
Also second in the year was Command Airways, headquartered in Poughkeepsie, New York. The company operated Beech 99s, DHC-6 Twin Otters, Shorts 330s, Shorts 360s and ATR-42s.
Simmons, the third Japanese NAMC YS-11, Shorts 360, ATR-42, and ATR-72 deployed from Chicago O’Hare, and Wings West, the fourth, deployed C99, Fairchild Swearingen Metros, Jetstream 31s, and Saab 340 To a destination on the west coast.
Finally, Puerto Rico-based Executive Airlines jumped into the swimming pool on September 15, 1986, operating CASA C-212-200 Aviocar, Sorts 360 and ATR-72.
It operates from Islip to noon ERJ-145 in Chicago O’Hare, complements American MD-80 morning and evening, and replaces Saab 340 (which used to be a business express before AMR, Inc.) for 34 people on four shifts a day. Color flight), then folded it into the American Eagle brand (American Eagle brand), and use an equal number of 37 ERJ-135 frequency.
Another operator of the Long Island MacArthur American Eagle ERJ-145 is Piedmont, whose origin can be traced back to Henson Airlines.
It was established in 1961 by aviation pioneer and test pilot Richard A. Henson of Fairchild Aircraft Company. It has planted a sedentary foundation in Hagerstown, Maryland, USA as a designated base operator, designated as “Henson Aviation”, but thereafter He started his own regular service, flying from Washington to Washington. It was named after “Hagerstown Commuters” in 1962.
Five years later, a code-sharing agreement was reached with Allegheny Airlines and replaced the airline’s service in Salisbury, Maryland. The business expanded to Philadelphia, Baltimore and Washington, and boarded the 1 millionth passenger in 1977 And purchased the first four-engine, capable of accommodating 54 passengers. Two years after that, Canada’s DHC-7 de Havilland.
It was purchased by Piedmont Airlines in 1983 and renamed “Piedmont Regional Airlines Hansen”.
The following year, the company delivered the first 37-seater DHC-8-100 passenger aircraft. By the end of 1987, it had served 38 destinations in ten states and the Bahamas.
After merging with USAir in 1989, Henson became the carrier of USAir Express and later US Airways Express, but it retained its original identity four years later and was renamed “Piedmont Airlines”. American Airlines purchased US Airways in 2013 and renamed it American Eagle, thus maintaining this philosophy.
Today, Piedmont/American Eagle operates three ERJ-145 flights daily from Islip to Philadelphia, USA, one of the former hubs of American Airlines/American Airlines in 0710, 1035, and 1858. The return flights arrived at Long Island area at 1007, 1833 and 2221.
Both ASA Atlantic Southeast Airlines and Comair ship the larger CRJ-700 into Islip.
Bombardier first tried to provide a higher-capacity version in order to more effectively compete with Fokker F.70 and Avro International RJ70 (70 seats), the plan was officially launched in January 1997. Based on the original CRJ-200, it introduced a slightly wider fuselage with a total length of 106.8 feet; a larger wing with a span of 76.3 feet and an area of 760 square feet; the leading edge slats increase low-speed lift and reduce takeoff Itinerary; 13,790 lb thrust CF34-8C5B1 turbofan; lower floors to increase cabin clearance; elevated passenger windows; single shift capacity of 78 people; and maximum payload and gross weight of 18,055 lbs and 75,000 lbs.
It flew for the first time on May 27, 1999 and served in British Airways (Brit Air) two years later, maintaining the same model level as the predecessor of the smaller aircraft.
Its extended range CRJ-700ER has a capacity of 1,504 nautical miles and a cruising speed of 448 knots/515 miles/Mach 0.78.
Timely regional jet snapshot:
Due to demand, the need to adjust capacity, schedule time, and in some cases need to replace one aircraft with another, any attempt to discuss the operation of regional aircraft at Long Island MacArthur Airport can only be completed in a timely manner.
For example, in the second half of 1988, which could be regarded as its early regional jetliner period, President Air transported its BAe-146-200 aircraft to Dulles, Washington, while Piedmont “resized” to maintain frequency, Passengers between 65-737-300 morning and evening and between morning and noon Henson DHC-8-100 at noon F.28-1000.
In 1998, it can be said that the next generation of regional jets is coming. Long Island is connected to the Delta Atlanta and Cincinnati hubs and the mainland Cleveland, with 50-seat CRJ-100, CRJ-200 and ERJ-145, respectively. Provided by Comair, ASA and ExpressJet.
The number of daily departures included: three Comair / Delta Connection CRJ-100 to Cincinnati, two American Eagle ERJ-145 to Chicago, two and later ExpressJet / Continental Express ERJ-145 to Cleveland , And three ASA / Delta Connection CRJ-200. Atlanta.
In the first month of regional aircraft operations, the airline transported 6,980 passengers, making it the third-largest tenant at the airport in terms of boarding.
As of December 1999, of the 37 daily pure jets, 8 (19%) used the new Canadair and Embraer regional jets. As of March 2000, the total number of monthly passengers on regional jets was 16,210, that is, ASA carried 6,107, Comair carried 6,831, and ExpressJet carried 3,212.
In August 2002, the American Eagle replaced the four Saab 340 flights to Boston with ERJ-135, providing a hub feed for American Airlines. In the fall, NASA (ASA) and Comair upgraded its two or three frequencies from Atlanta and Cincinnati to a larger capacity CRJ-700.
Last regional jet inauguration ceremony:
The latest airline for regional aircraft to enter the Long Island market is Elite Airlines.
As the name implies, the company was founded to provide a quality travel experience in 2016. It entered the arena as a US part 121 air carrier and transported sports teams and executives on a route from Northeast to Florida through a CRJ Of scheduled flights and charter services-100, five CRJ-200 and five CRJ-700.
From Islip to Portland, Maine, limited CRJ-700 service twice a week; Myrtle Beach, South Carolina; Melbourne and Florida cities held inaugurations on June 17, 2016 . However, due to lower-than-expected load factors, the company was prompted to pause twice between January 15 and February 16, and between April and July of that year to reconsider its strategy.
Although the second grounding became an unexpected 16-month grounding, it finally reappeared on the scene on September 6, 2018, this time sending the CRJ-200 on Thursday and Sunday to Melbourne. Designated as flight 7Q 21, it took off at 0800 and arrived in a sunny state in 1045. After a 45-minute turnaround, it re-flyed to Bimini in the Bahamas in 1130, becoming Islip’s first direct flight to the route.
Rebecca Emery, Director of Public Relations at Elite Airlines, said: “The route is designed so that passengers departing from Islip can only book flights to Melbourne or stay in Bibi Bimini’s transfer service.” “This is the closest Bahamas to the United States, with miles of secluded beaches, four-star hotels, and Resort World Bimini Casino and Marina.”
The return flight 7Q 23 departed from Bimini in 1330, but required customs clearance by the US Customs and Border Patrol. It landed in Melbourne an hour later, then operated in 7Q 24, took off in 1600, and landed at MacArthur in 2045.
The low load factor once again led to the suspension of the aircraft, which made the Piedmont/American Eagle ERJ-145 aircraft Philadelphia, which is the only remaining regional aircraft operation of Islip in early 2020.