Life history of Bedford, Pennsylvania


Bedford is a well-preserved historical site that provides a lively historical experience for tourists, allowing him to walk along the road forged by his ancestors, visit several important houses and fortresses, and even stay in Its rising resort.

The frontier region is full of rolling hills, grasslands and forests. The former calls for people to exert the inherent characteristics of creativity on it, rising from Harris Ferry along the Susquehanna River in the east. The fort to Logstown proved to be on the Ohio River in the west during the French and Indian Wars from 1754 to 1763. It marks the expansion of the British to the west, just like a series of GPS waypoints. Their names include Lyttleton, Loudon, Frederick, Raystown/Bedford, Cumberland, Ligonier, Necessity, and Pete/Duquesne. However, the two names with dual names will play the largest role in the development of the region.

Where the traffic paths meet, the settlement usually rises, just like the town of Bedford, which was the form of a stronghold erected by the British in the movement against the French along the Forbes Road in 1758, which was formerly a trail in India Assembly point. They will then evolve into the first arterial ride across the Pennsylvania toll road to facilitate the transportation of horses and trucks.

The irregularly-shaped fortifications built by General John Forbes Vice President Colonel Henry Bowquet, covering 7,000 square yards, have five forts. Four to five feet deep around its perimeter, a three-foot wide V-shaped ditch supports 18-foot-long logs laid side by side, which are cut from the surrounding oak forests, flat and tightly intertwined. When inserted, a circular gallery extends from the north end of the central fortress to the edge of the water. The rotating gun guard guards its corner.
The entrance is provided by three gates, one of which is on its south side parallel to today’s Pitt Street. The second, smaller, west-facing; there is also a backyard that opens north

The originally designated Fort Raystown perched on a bluff and overlooked the river gap. It was originally a staging point for 6,790 westward troops attacked while ascending the majestic Allegheny Mountains, but continued. Before heading to Fort Pitt/, the necessary supplies have been replenished/Duquesne, the stronghold of France.

The British strategy proved successful: their opponents were defeated, effectively removing the obstacles for native English speakers to control the Ohio Valley and even the United States.

At the end of 1758, after the 4th Duke of Bedford, England, the fort was renamed “Bedford Fort”. The secondary purpose of this fort was to provide a sense of security against Indian attacks, and its safety promoted people’s Settlement mountains in valleys and wood-rich areas. As a result, it provided the seeds that allowed this named village to eventually grow, becoming the first county town west of the Tuscalolar Mountains, and at one time became a strategic location throughout western Pennsylvania, located on intrastate highways.

It was launched in 1766 and was established on March 13 29 years later.

The development of the county town was parallel to the development of the town, which was caused by the discovery of coal on Broad Top Mountain, resulting in the railway needed to transport it to the sprouting iron foundry in the area, only from 1870 to 1890 Time, the population has increased by 100%. The track network, which facilitates the transportation of iron, wood and passengers, was later supplemented and eventually replaced by the Lincoln Highway (Route 30), which connects Bedford with Pittsburgh and Pennsylvania toll roads.

Bedford’s own short urban walking tour allows visitors to relive their history in several important buildings.

For example, the National Museum of American Bedspreads is located in an ordinary school, which was built in 1859 at a cost of $7,000 and started enrolling 211 students the following year. It was used as a school until it was sold to private interests in 1999. It contains a large part of the original structure, including the middle part, the ventilation system and the surrounding iron fence.

The Bedford County Courthouse was built by Solomon Filler from 1828 to 1829 at a price of $7,500. It also exudes originality, especially on the clocks installed on the top of the tower. The chain can only be wound manually after climbing until it is powered on in 1975. Its two internal self-supporting circular staircases lead to the second floor of the longitudinally lined courtroom. The columns on the opposite facade were donated by Feller himself, and later donated by Feller himself, representing God on the left and justice on the right.

The people on the monument are located at the intersection of Juliana and Penn streets. They were erected in 1890 to commemorate soldiers who sacrificed their lives during the Civil War, including more than 20,000 pence students. It moved to its present position in 1957.

Behind it is the seat of the city’s first court and prison, constructed from blue limestone between 1774 and 1775.

Espy House is one of the most important buildings. In fact, it was designated as a National Historic Landmark in 1984. It was owned by the Colonel and Mrs. David Espi, and was the headquarters of George Washington during the 1794 Whiskey Uprising. Farmers in western Pennsylvania protested the consumption tax on alcohol levied by Hamilton, the Ministry of Finance. The 13,000 EFF in Washington had been frustrated by requesting the surrounding expansion to provide overnight accommodation. This marks the first and only time that the US President has commanded the army in the wild.

The rebels dispersed to the mountain in October and showed failure.

The National Tower opened the door for tired travelers almost throughout its existence. Its strategic location is on Forbes Road, now known as “Pitt Street”.

Like the court building built by Solomon Filler, the Anderson House is located on land purchased from William Penn named by the state government, and its front is used for medical treatment The back office is used as the Allegheny Bank of Pennsylvania. It is the only public warehouse between Pittsburgh and Chandsburg.

Bedford Museum:

The importance of the original fortress was short-lived and was only the place where a major event in history occurred: trying to release the prisoners detained there, James Smith and his black boy occupied the fortress on September 17, 1769, but After the French and Indian wars, its garrison borders have been reduced to only a negligible number of 12. By 1775, when the border moved to Pittsburgh, it quickly developed into a state of disrepair.

To celebrate the 200th anniversary of Bedford’s birth, a blockade of logs and caulk was raised from the original fortress location (200 years after its completion in 1958), still perched on a cliff, overlooking Take the Raystown Branch River at Juniata. Its north wall was partially added in 2006 and is adjacent to the current Bedford Museum.

The block Fort building is divided into a main gallery, a transport room, a back gallery, a mezzanine and a gift shop. The interior exudes the new frontier atmosphere of western Pennsylvania, displaying 2,000 artifacts in its collection, including Native American tools, Civil and military items, household items, fl guns, antique tools, 19th-century women’s clothing, civil war cannons, Conestoga vans, stone tools, documents signed by the Paine family, and the ledger of Bedford Spa Resort, showing Buchan The signature of President Nan.

Its focus is a large-scale model of the original fortress, depicting Forbes Road, Juniata River and its surrounding area. But perhaps the rarest piece in the collection is the original 1758 national flag. A hand-stitched red silk satin brocade flag was sent from the 4th Duke of Bedford, England, to a British gift still designated as Fort Rex, with a 23-inch by 24-inch joint jack in the upper left corner , Which promoted the development of the fortress. To commemorate him, he was renamed Bedford at the end of 1758. Although there is no evidence to indicate whether this is official, the evidence hung in the officer’s quarters is only shown on special occasions.
However, when the British freedom to rule was called the “Declaration of Independence”, the patriots of British officials came to Bedford by word of mouth.

An example of the museum is the only British red fly that survived the French and Indian wars.

Old Bedford Village:

The Fort Bedford Museum provides only the past style of the town. However, the more than 40 original and replicated logs, frames and stone structures that make up Old Bedford Village allow visitors to put on the shoes of former citizens and go their own way, explaining what is preserved here Early life in Pennsylvania.

Drive past the clay-covered flyover, and briefly through the Welcome Center, taking him back to the dawn of Pennsylvania, where the carriage drove through the gravel road, the smoke from the chimney of the cabin, people were wearing casual clothes, and the blacksmiths beat the metal The voice echoed.

The village provides some examples of period residences. For example, Biddle House is a two-story log structure that was originally built a few miles away from the Dutch Corner and is one of the earliest buildings in the complex. Its V-shaped double fireplace provides both heat and cooking methods.

The next-door Kegg-Blasko house is a mixture of houses, which combines the remnants of the structure built by Thomas Kinton in 1768 and James Heydon in 1790, both of which are located in Bay. Deford County.

A 1802 paper contract identified the village’s Semanek house as a “log building”, originally located in the village of Ryot in the town of West St. Clair. It uses almost extinct chestnuts in its construction.

Williams Cabin is a typical representative of most first-generation settlers’ cabins, until time and place allowed them to build more sturdy cabins, while the contrasting Anderson Victorian houses were built by Ananda The wood of Lai Hotel is assembled, reminiscent of its Victorian era of the same name.

Represents two schools: the standard configuration of Kniseley School, built in 1869, located near Pleasantville, until the 1930s, and the appropriately named 8 square school, by Nat Hoover (Nat Hoover) in 1851 Founded in the town of East St. Clair in 2007, it is often patronized by children of wealthier families.

In many shops and service establishments, dressed citizens are still practicing the original method. The ice cream parlour is a 17th-century cottage-style building. It is said that Feather’s Bakery was built by William Nichols in 1808. It still produces commercially available baked goods in the oven called “Old Bedford Village Bakery”. Its door opened. In the dark interior of the Pendergrass Tavern, the interior decoration provided by wooden shelves can also be used for lunch. The restaurant’s original counterpart was outside the city walls of Bedfordburg in the 1750s.

Other necessities of the period are available from Chandler (candle), furry basket store, Cooper store (barrels and barrels), grocery store and post office, Old Bedford Country Press, Bedford County Rifle, Carriage shop, Fisher shop get. Pottery, White Smith (tin) and broom shop.
Manually driven all the machinery in the village, such as the Hammings furniture and wood store and the bicycle lathes and bicycle-like jig saws of Antonson Blacksmith’s Shop. The tools necessary for handicrafts in other periods have also been formed, including very Sturdy shoes. Need to run the day’s engine-horse.

The village also took care of people’s improper behavior in prison, which represented the type used in the county town 1800 years ago, and ensured that his soul of paradise would not be a replica of the United Church in 1806. Into the ashtray. It is made of logs and still stands west of Fort Shelter.

Using the village’s rich resources and educational programs that require handcrafting, through sewing, dip candles, collaboration, forging, basket making, spinning, wheat weaving, leather processing, teaching, depicting and demonstrating the life of Pennsylvania in the 18th and 19th centuries , Tin, broom making, corn rag doll doll making, and a series of courses, lectures, and tours of off-road vehicle riding. You can buy handicrafts made in the country at the gift shop in the Welcome Center.

Seasons and holidays mark special events, such as colonial arts and crafts exhibitions; festivals with historical customs, costumes, and food; muzzle gun battles; civil wars, the recurrence of the French and Indian wars; Old West weekend; murder mystery night; pumpkin festivals and vintage On Christmas, I saw a candle lantern in the village.

Bedford Springs Resort:

Many important houses and fortresses in Bedford give visitors a glimpse of its history, but Bedford Springs Resort allows him to live.

Although the original Bedford Castle and the discovery of wide-topped coal attracted people in the area, there was another important attraction: mineral springs.

As early as 1796, Dr. John Anderson discovered what the Native Americans already knew, namely, drinking and bathing in the seven Chateau in the area, limestone, sulfur, and sweat spring water all recovered Sexual and curative results. Incorporating these originally free remedies into his medical practice, he chose to purchase 2,200 acres of land around him and build his own house on it. But his privacy in this idyllic place is short-lived.

Travel to Cumberland, Maryland, and then take a horse and truck for the last 21 miles of trek to Bedford. More and more tourists are attracted to the area to find the therapeutic effects of hot springs, and Dr. Anderson was originally They are improvised here. Tent, according to personal health requirements to prepare customized prescriptions. Bathing facilities were formed in 1802.

But the irresistible desire quickly demanded the replacement of temporary tents with more permanent and regional indicative accommodations-four years later in the form of Stone Inn, Stone Inn’s structures were provided free of charge like springs by water, adjacent mountains And the ox was pulled down. The location is permanently unchanged, but its purpose is only temporary, and the number of guests exerting demand on it soon exceeds the capacity.

According to a travel note written by Joshua Galpin in 1809, when the stone house has been joined by the predecessors of Clarkford and Evette’s house, the facilities include “large frame houses and some smaller family-style houses Housing, including hot and cold baths and billiard room.”

This Swiss building and other buildings soon rose from a vast space that was once meaningless.

It is famous for comfortable accommodation, good food and activities that emphasize the natural environment, constantly attracting industrialized guests from the eastern coastal cities, and more and more wealthy and distinguished guests. For example, the future US President and Pennsylvanian James Buchanan first visited Bedford Hot Springs in 1821, and will eventually spend 40 summers there, calling it the “Summer White House.” In 1848, James K. Polk became one of the ten current presidents there, followed by Taylor, Taft, and Polk , Harding and Eisenhower, as well as nine Supreme Court justices and countless celebrities. Ten years later, Buchanan himself received the first transatlantic cable sent by Queen Victoria of England at the resort.

For the first time in 1872, rail transport linked the growing region to major countries such as Philadelphia, Washington, and New York, greatly simplifying travel to Bedford.

At the end of the 19th century, it became one of the large resorts in the United States. It appropriately reflected the golden age of the period with spring houses, bridges, gates and paths, and the cable across the Atlantic Ocean was only the first of many resort-related innovations. For example, it introduced one of the earliest golf courses in the country, such as designed by Spencer Oldham in 1895. Ten years later, it launched the first indoor mineral water indoor swimming pool with solarium and spa room.

Although advances in medicine have prevented the scale from reaching Bedford Spa’s original intentions, its reputation as a luxury resort serving prestigious customers has firmly established itself in the region that created this area. In fact, it is so The central colonnade has now become the main attraction dining room, with a cylindrical pavilion at Magnesia Springs in Schober’s Run.

Its role still maintained a sense of luxury, transferring between 1941 and 1943, when the US Navy occupied the resort, trained about 7,000 sailors in radio operations, and then used it as a detention facility as a World War II During the detention center of nearly 200 Japanese diplomats captured in Germany until they were replaced by American prisoners of war in Asia.

In the 1950s, due to the installation of environmental control and sprinkler systems, it had a modern impact again.

Popularity inevitably conflicts with the purpose. Travel trends have changed. Although designated as a national historical landmark in 1984, travel trends have been declining until they are closed after two years. Subsequent flooding caused severe damage to its 200-year-old wooden wall.

But Bedford Springs Partners is still aware of its brilliance, buying the once majestic real estate for $8 million, and carrying out a large-scale, $120 million restoration to revive and restore it to the golden age of 1905 , And reopened on July 12, 2007 after the eighth mineral spring was discovered intermittently. After two acquisitions in two years, it was renamed “Omni Bedford Springs Resort and Spa”.

Its self-proclaimed mission is to “open the door to history.”

Bedford Springs Resort is located in the Allegheny Mountains region of south-central Pennsylvania, overlooking the Cumberland Valley. It can be driven down the historic hillside to the sanctuary where time has been preserved, and then through the white porch. The spacious mansions lined up in Bedford Springs Resort. In the audible streams and springs, after the manicured lawns and formal gardens, visitors enter the circular driveway, which is close to the double brick front colonnade. In addition to becoming a national historic landmark, the resort also has AAA-grade three-diamond four-star properties and is rated as one of the historical hotels in the United States.

The colonnade itself is the core of the connectivity with the adjacent architectural style. It is itself a reception area for guests. It is decorated with the original 39-star American flag; the lobby; the location for daily afternoon tea service; and the entrance to the ballroom stairs. One of its flanks leads to the Stone Inn with frontier taverns and 1796 Room restaurant, while the other side passes through the Crystal Room restaurant, through the library, through the Che Sara Sara food stall, indoor swimming pool and shops Corridor to go to the spa.

The resort’s 216 rooms and four suites are located in the historic Spa Wing or the new Spa Wing, which has a long history and tradition, but still offers modern luxury, authentic patterns and textures, marble floors in the bathroom and washbasin , Egyptian linen and authentic, past times reminiscent of canes.

There are several restaurants.

For example, the Crystal Room used to be a music room, and it was also used as a ladies’ living room. It was renovated in 1905 during the grand campaign of the resort, replacing the considerable facilities upstairs and later becoming the colonnade banquet hall. There are now classic Doric column screens on both sides, with original crystal chandeliers reflecting the name. Victorian back chairs with gold-plated mirrors; four types of blue rotisserie; exhibition kitchen; 1,500-bottle wine cellar; and a collection of guest photos taken between 1892 and 1898. It leads to Daniel Webster’s private room.

The Frontier Tavern in the Stone Inn area of ​​the hotel used to be a stagecoach stop. The earliest guests of Bedford Springs have been transported from the carriage to the original tavern three miles away for dinner. It is full of period items, such as bear traps, tools, wood stoves and colored pottery. It also has a bar and a pool table.

Room 1796, also located in the Stone Inn area, reflects the year when Dr. John Anderson first purchased the Bedford Springs Hotel, and exudes an 18th century steak and ribs American colonial atmosphere, which also includes various options such as bison, Venison, rabbit, wild boar, quail, game pie and mountain trout.

The mineral water indoor swimming pool has restored its 1905 façade, and it has been playing sports on the music pool that has been entertaining guests for more than a century.

The 30,000-square-foot Springs Eternal Spa features dry and wet treatment rooms, aromatherapy, massages, facial treatments, gardens and boutiques. All treatments use actual mineral water.

The conference center is 20,000 square feet, which is two thirds of the conference room.

The 18-hole “Old Course” designated golf course reflects the deductive form designed by Donald Ross in 1923, the third after the Spencer Oldham in 1895 and the intermittent 9-hole AW Tillinghast version in 1912. Such creation.

In addition to playing golf, Bedford Springs Resort offers many activities, including indoor and outdoor swimming, hiking and cycling on 25 miles of trails, fishing in the Golden Trout River, kayaking, Rafting and cross-country skiing, and has a wide range of functions, from parties to horse riding weddings.